Welcome to Austria!
The history of the capital of Austria is similar to a moment in comparison with the age of the planet, but in this moment a lot of dramatic and joyful events that sometimes determined the fate of Europe. Approximately 7,000 years ago the land on which Vienna originated, began to settle.
In the Iron Age, Illyrians settled here, which settled on Mount Leopoldsberg, from which today you will open the panorama of the city in all its glory.
Peaceful Illyrians changed militant Celts that built a powerful fortress on this mountain, which was named Vindobona, which translated from Celtic means "White City" or "White Square".
A few years before the new era, the area of today’s Austria went to the Roman Empire. The Romans built fortresses and defensive structures on the Danube, and Roman soldiers settled in the area of today’s city center, and you can trace the boundaries of this settlement during one of your walks.
Approximately 400 after p.NS. Vindobona was destroyed. Housing occurs around her ruins, about 800 years old for this settlement was built church of ST.Ruprecht oldest city church.
Where did the name of Vienna come from and what it means? Most likely – from the river "Vein", Petchtyski "Forest stream". Initially, Wenia’s name arose, then Wienne or Vienne (so it sounds now Vienna in French) and finally – Wien.
The fortress began to turn into the city – new homes, churches, market square were built. In 1156, the Duke of Heinrich II Yazanmiggott from the genus Babenberger equipped his home on the square, which is called the name Am Hof at the court. Vienna becomes a ducal residence. Building veins sometimes helped war. So, in 1192, the Duke Leopold V captured his opponent, England King Richard Lion’s Heart. Liberation of the king "Weelo" 10 tons of silver to which urban fortifications were erected. Ren, surrounding the Roman camp, were covered, and throughout the current Ringstrasse there were fortress walls. Vienna rose to the size of the current first district – city center.
Long time by Austria Babenberger rules. In 1246, Friedrich II, nicknamed by militant, fell in the battle against Hungarians. He had no heirs, and the management of the lands turned into the hands of the Bohemian king Ottokar Przemysh. In 1278, Ottokar was defeated by the German king Rudolph Habsburg. WITH. this time was established by the domination of the Dynasty of the Habsburgs, which lasted 640 years. Rudolph built a new residence for himself) – Hofburgg. This residence consisted of luxurious chambers, there was its own "House for dance", Bath, a lot of kitchens and a very beautiful chapel, preserved to this day.
In the period of the Middle Ages, Vienna turned into a rich city, numbering at the beginning of the XV century about 20.000 residents. At the beginning of the XYI century, 50 lived in Vienna.000 people. This century has become a century of tests. In 1529, Turkish Sultan Suleiman II begins a military campaign to finally conquer Hungary and put to her Vienna. 150.000 soldiers of the Army Sultan opposed only 17.000 defenders of the city. Siege lasted about three weeks, and despite the huge numerical advantage of Sultan failed to conquer Vienna. Turks showed, however, enviable historical perseverance, and in 1683 they decided to try success again. This time at the head of the troops of 250.000 people stood the great Vizier Kara Mustafa, who was opposed by all the same number of defense -17.000. On the proposal of a visit to surrender without resistance the crowns answered Gordy refusal. Reinforcement came to the rescue, headed by the Polish king of the Johann III Sobetsky.September 12, 1683 at five o’clock in the morning the decisive battle began, ended with a complete defeat of the Turks.
XYIII century – the era of Mary Teresia, which has ruined since 1740. Entered her happy family life with Franz Stefan Larring. Spouses had 16 children, however, three died at an early age.
Maria Teresia spent a lot of reforms, among which compulsory education, the priority of the local industry and T.D. In 1770, the houses of Vienna received the number for the first time. Hofburg, where Maria Teresia lived with her family, got the number "1". The successor of the reform of Mary Teresia was her son Emperor Joseph II, distinguished by wide democratic views. He opposed the privileges of the aristocrats who got to them at birth, and paid a lot of attention to the simple people. The emperor made Parks by NRATER and AUGARANT, in which only representatives of the highest nobility could have worried and hunt and hunt.
In premia "Fashhang" (passenger walkings) on the balas and the luxurious halls of Hofburg could be present, without the difference of class.
By order of Joseph II, a universal city hospital was built, which turned into one of the largest medical centers today.
The emperor declared freedom of religion, canceling the absolute domination of the Catholic Church, removed censorship. At the end of the XVIII century, Vienna turns into the musical capital of the world. This epoch is primarily connected with the names of the Creators "Vienna Classic" – Gaidna, Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert. Approximately 200 years ago, Vienna’s dancers won Waltz. He was rightly called "Vienna", For it is the crowns, and especially the wreaths gave him an existing dotol form. In the wild whirlwinds were circled in the arms of each other a couple of parquet, desolation of those who did not owe "PA". Losers often fell on the floor.
Power-holders found the dance immoral and banned him. But it did not stop the dancers – with a greater zeal, they gave themselves to the power of the vulnerable element of the Waltz.
Twice included with his army in Vienna Emperor Napoleon, his headquarters was in the summer Kaiser Residence – Schenbruna. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 and 1815, the Viennese Congresses were held, identifying new borders of Europe. COGRESS participants entertained, as they could, – one ball was replaced by another. It is not by chance that these congresses entered Istria as "Dancing".
XIX century brought with them many innovations and a lot of problems. Joseph II reforms were largely forgotten. Freedom of speech disappeared that for the vents were unbearable. Political tables were canceled, fierce censorship, there are spies and diameters everywhere.
The cup of patience overflowed and the revolution broke out in March 1848. Kaiser Ferdinand fled from Vienna, against the rebels were soldiers. The revolution was defeated, but Kaiser was forced to renounce the throne. The new emperor was the nephew of Ferdinand Franz Joseph, who joined the throne at 18 and the Rule of almost 70 years. During the reign of Franz Joseph Vienna, turned into the largest city in Europe, which appeared by the beginning of the 20th century, more than 2 million people, which exceeds today’s population of the capital (1.6 million).
On May 1, 1865, Franz Joseph solemnly opened Ringstrasse ("ring" Street) arising at the site of the former city walls and being today a visiting card of Vienna. This street was to embody the triumph of the imperial yard, nobility and higher layers of the bourgeoisie, but on the whim of the story she marked the end of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. The empire suffered the fate of all "Colossi on clay legs" People who inhabited this 50 million conglomerate wished independence. The national-grade struggle led to the beginning of the First World War, the reason for which, as is known, served as a murder in the Saraith of the heir to the throne of Franz Ferdinand.
Kaiser Franz Joseph dies in 1916 in Shenbruin – where he was born. The new ruler of Austria becomes Kaiser Karl, who reigns only two years. In 1918, the monarchy disintegrates into 7 states, one of which Austria becomes with a 7 millionth population (today – eight million).
We will limit ourselves to the story about the monarchist vein, since the newest story is probably well known to you, dear readers. After the heyday of socialism with stormy urban construction, the sad-famous "Anchlus", Austria’s accession to Germany, produced by Adolf Hitler, born on this earth. Then the tragic years of war, the liberation of the Vienna of the Allied Army, followed by the occupation, which lasted until 1955, when the State Agreement was signed, according to which Austria received neutrality.
So, you came to Vienna, and, most likely, landed at the Vienna Airport, located in the town of Schwechat. Path to Vienna – about 30 minutes. If no one meets you, you take a taxi (the fare to the city of about 400 shillings) or get to the route bus that takes you to the center, to the hotel "Hilton". In this case, you pay approximately 80 shillings. Probably, you set up at the hotel, which was also booked in Russia.
Do you know where you want to stay ? In the capital of Austria, hotels in the most different categories like "Donov Pedro in Brazil", which, as Donna Rosa spoke by the mouth of Alexander Kalyagin, "And do not count". Based on the absolute creditworthiness of our readers, we call the most, from our point of view, the best.
Absolute "hit"- "Ana-Grandotel", Located in the center, in the ring. This hotel belonging to the Japanese airline, the first hotel of this kind in Europe, opened a couple of years ago.
He amazes with his luxury and impeccable service. Here are increasingly growing our, understanding a lot in life and refused from "Hilton" and "Intercontinental", which are also in Vienna.
Near "Ana Grand Hotel" – Hotels "Bristol" and "Imperial", The embodiment of the imperial vein, where everything is sheepdown by memories of good old times and where the tradition is honorabled.
Two steps – hotel "San", Also, the oasis, preserved from the past, in the confectionery store of which you can buy a chocolate cake that is famous for the whole world, nation "Prague".
A very special hotel is located in the Palace of Schwarzenberg, still belonging to the prince, the descendant of a noble kind. Find this palace will help you a huge monument to the Soviet soldier-liberator. Two steps from this holy for any our place is the leading Austrian Bank "Gutmann AG", existing since 1922 and having long-standing relations with Russia.
Schwarzenberg Palace is surrounded by a romantic fleet, where you can do morning and evening walks, interiors. Bind up with their intimate atmosphere, and the restaurant of this hotel is considered one of the best in Vienna. If you choose one of these hotels, believe. You have a good mood.
Located in the hotel and rebuilding, you go on acquaintance with the city. where to go ?
You are not mistaken by going, albeit not the first time, on the square.Stephen, which is a symbol of veins.
In our releases, we describe in a detail about all the main attractions of the city and offer you "Day in Vienna".
. Ancient Square St. Stephen is full of tourists at any time of the year. Here are photo products, here they take phiakra here to survive the city from the stroller and, most importantly, here are involved in the great sacrament. Find on the bridge outline from the Red Stone (to the right of the main entrance to the cathedral), reproducing chapel contours. This place is the energy center of Vienna. Log in and open your soul to meet the celestial forces, and then tell us about the results!
This year, the pride of Vienna – St. Stephen’s Cathedral celebrates its 850th anniversary. He survived not one war and not one catastrophe and – in spite of everything – surrender.
Vienna is unthinkable without this cathedral, towering over the sea roofs. In his stones lives the memory of the past and a new story is created.
Stefeman – an integral part of each crown. Despite his old age, the cathedral is beautiful – many people of different countries take care of his appearance, aware of that this treasure is our common property.
. Construction of the Cathedral of St.Stephen lasted several centuries, each of whom left his traces in his architecture.
Stefansd full secrets – you will see amazing signs, images of animals, strange figures on his walls, and everything has a certain meaning, which we can only guess today. Stefeman – is a book that you can read all my life and make all new discoveries for yourself. Cathedral rebuilt three times. The first church was consecrated in honor of the patron saint of St. Stephen in 1147. She was outside of urban walls, and almost nothing has been preserved from it. In 1263, the consecration of the second, Romance Church took place. The latter, the Gothic Church was built by 150 years.
From the Romanesque Church, HeidentLirme (Pagan Gate) and Riesentor (Giant Gate) are preserved through which you will enter the Cathedral. Raise the look up and you will see interesting figures located in niches, for example, "man pulling off the city", which is also called "Sandals" and which you can call in your own way. Next to your gaze will appear dragons, lions and Vasilisk, who considered the king of snakes. According to medieval ideas, these demons and beasts have always surrounded God’s house and sought to seize abandoned altars. Imagine that once Riesentor and many other external parts of the cathedral were painted, and Stefeman had a completely different appearance.
The place of development of the Stefansdom was once behind the walls of the Roman settlement, that is, in the suburbs: soon there was a cemetery around the new church, on which burials were buried until the XVIII century. In 1732, but the order of Kaiser Karl VI cemetery was closed. Some of the tombstones can be seen on the walls of the cathedral, there are access and underground scleps.
A lot of interesting historical objects, such as fabric length measures, and karabavy bread. Any medieval buyer could control their goods on them, and if he found a deception, the seller had badly: a buncock, for example, at any time of the year, lowered in his own wicker basket in Danube, and often it became the last bathing.
If you are an inquisitive tourist, then you will be able to find "Freyung" Ring, grabbed for which, who fled from persecution, even if it was a criminal, became an inviolable.
The Cathedral of the Duke of Rudolf IV Habsburg (13391365), pronounced Stifter (founder, founder), since it has developed today’s appearance of Stefansdom. The last restructuring of the cathedral was financed by residents of Vienna, founded the so-called Kirchenfabrik (church factory), which controlled cash receipts and observed for the construction.
The southern tower, which the crowns are lovingly called "Stefl", Built 74 years. Its height – 136.7 meters, at one time she was the highest tower of the German Empire. In 1450, the northern tower was laid. Wine of this year was so sour that he was poured into the streets. Kaizer Friedrich III ordered to bring this wine to the shtfandom, to use it when the lime quenching for the foundation of the tower. A funny analogy is the foundation of the Alexandrian pillar in St. Petersburg, according to legend, mixed on vodka.
Inside the Cathedral of St. Stephen you will find a meeting with beautiful. The interior of the cathedral gives an idea of different style directions of the generation of artists worked on the decoration of the Stefansdom. Central Altar depicts the execution of St. Stephen – the first Christian martyr. To the right of the entrance you will see the Gothic altar 1513 g. depicting Pencho Madonna. The cult of the Virgin Mary is characteristic of the Catholic Church, and this Madonna is loved and the worship is especially – you are easy to make sure to visit Stefansdom. Her story is noteworthy – in 1697, by order of Kaiser, Madonna was brought here from Hungary, since she was attributed to a mi- with a miracle property.
In the main portal of the cathedral, surrounded by candles and flowers, you go and other Mary Mary with a baby, famous for the people as a patroner serving.
. Many years ago, a rich countean lived in Vienna, hearing very devout, her house had even his little chapel. However, if she didn’t pray, it was a day in front of which all servants fluttered. Among these servants there was an orphan, which got the most. Once a valuable pearl necklace disappeared from the Counterteant Box. I do not think for a second, the Countess accused the poor maid in the steal. Caused guardianship. In desperation, the girl rushed to the chapel, fell on his knees in front of Madonna and exclaimed: "Mother of God, help me!"
Countess, who followed the servant, only grinned: "This is my Mother of God, she doesn’t need prayers servants!" But the NS girl was leaning and continued to ask for help. Wahmistra, who watched this scene, doubted and ordered the house to search. Soon the jewel was found among the belongings of the bray. At the interrogation, he confessed to the steal, and the girl was released. Countess who did not want to more have the Mother of God, helps servants, presented her church. Glory about the miraculous salvation of the girl spread throughout the city, and the glory of the defenders of the servant, preserved to this day, strengthened.
The true masterpiece of the Stefansdom is the department carved from Stone Anton Pilgram in 15141515. The railing of the stairs of this department decorate images of the toad and lizards, which has a symbolic meaning: toad symbol of darkness, lizards – light, has become a struggle with evil. In the upper part – four Father of the Catholic Church, whose portraits are distinguished by deep psychologism. Master Pilgram perpetuated and peeking out of the window.
Do not miss the Gothic altar, made in 1447 and stored in "Women’s Closer". This altar carries the name of the city in which he was previously located, "Wiener Neustad".
The masterpiece is the tomb of Caiser Friedrich III from red marble, which is decorated with 240 figures (1513).
In Stefansdom, the famous commander Prince Evgeni Savoysky, who has already become a legend has already been buried. He was held on the last path with all the honors, expenses paid for Kaiser Karl VI, which then decided that he had fulfilled his mission and that heirs should take care of the tombstone monument. Evgeny Savoy died by a poor man, leaving his grandchildren Anna Victoria more than a million guilders. Heiress, however, did not feel any desire to fulfill his child debt. She hurried to sprinkle palaces, a unique library and a meeting of artistic values that took her inheritance, forgetting about benefactor. Only 18 years after the death of the prince, the conference of his nephew was engaged in the construction of the monument. Above the Altar Chapel, where the prince is buried, the big crucifixion hangs. Noteworthy in the image of Christ is his beard of real hair, which, according to legend, is growing, and every year is trimmed in Good Friday.
You will see in the cathedral and much more and, admiring this creation of human hands, do not forget about the fact that the pride of Austria belongs to the whole world, and you will do noble if you make a lot.
Northern Stefansdom Tower Abode "Pummer"- – The biggest bell of Austria (weight 21.383 kg, diameter – 314 cm). Mounted in 1683 after the second Turkish invasion of captured tools, he was a symbol of freedom. In 1945, during the fire, the bell fell and crashed. One of the nine lands of the republic. Upper Austria, donated funds for a new "Pummer", Which in 1952, like Peterhof Samson, was returned to his historical place.
The bell ringing can be heard on December 31. This evening (Sylvester) crowds of the people fill the area. Powerful Gul "Pummer" Divided but the whole Vienna, then the unofficial anthem of Austria sounds, the finus waltz "On the beautiful blue Danube", And under his sounds, circling couples are included in the new year. Fly in the air corks from champagne bottles, fireworks fireworks light the chaososklon, having fun, the vein celebrates.
You will not want to go away immediately from Stefanplatz, and do not need. Go and look around, for example, pay your gaze to the south. It is here that the Square is adjacent to Stefanplatz "Rod to them Eizen" with one of the symbols of the vein of a piece of tree trunk with robes driven into it, gave the name of the square. A lot of legends are associated with this symbol, one of which tells that during the Middle Ages, every follow-up worker who came to Vienna had to drive a nail into this tree – to leave "Business card". "Rod to them Eizen" Mounted in the wall "Ekitablpale",- Mansion named by the American Insurance Company. You will not regret if you enter this house where the architectural solution of the stairs and where the amazing view of the patio will open. Opposite the mansion introduction of the new time "Haashouse", Designed by one of the most famous architects of Vienna Hans Holly. WITH. 1867 here stood a house built for the company "Philip Haas and Sons", specializing in carpets, it was the first Vienna department store. After 1945, the house was badly damaged, and he was demolished by opening a flight of architectural thought. Today’s "Haashouse" Commercial paradise with expensive shops, cafes and restaurant, a real mirror, which reflects the past.
From Square "Rod to them Eizen" Two main streets of the historic center – AM Graben and Kardnierstraße.
Graben in our means "ditch". Once it was really ditching of the walls of the urban settlement: In the XIII century, there was a market square, where they stood at home went up through trade and in crusades of citizens.
The luxury of past centuries changed the current wealth. Today, the robin and in the adjacent streets live those who do not think about tomorrow.
Inheriting from yesterday’s day, they managed to increase the received. The inhabitants of Graben visit the stores located in the first floors, prices in which sometimes exceed the minimum salary of the Austrians several times. One of these stores is Georges Rech, where fashionista is waiting for many temptations.The motto of the proposed collections is elegance, not subject to time. In addition to exquisite items, you will find a wide selection of accessories here.
With the onset of cool weather on Graben begins "Parade Mochon" – Elegant ladies "skip" His fur coats.
Main landmark Graben – "Pestzoilele" ( "Plague" Column), or a column of the Trinity, built into the reign of Leopold 1 and reminding the terrible epidemic of 1679, which took tens of thousands of lives. Initially, it was a wooden column, in 1693 a baroque anthem of a stone was completed, which you can see and who became a prototype of such monuments in many cities of Austria. Relax from the column are two fountains "Josefsbrunnene" and "Leopoldsbrunnen", referring to the XIX century and named in honor of the most revered in the vein of saints.
Walking on Graben, you do not miss the coated patina of the dome Peterkirch, the monument of XYIII architecture with lush inner decoration.
You passed to the end of Graben, plenty of success in love with elegant facades. On perpendicular street called Colmarct (coal market) Roll to the left. This street, performed by elegance and typical Vienna Chic, will lead you to Hofburg, the former imperial court, for centuries, retained its importance for Austria and Europe. Pay attention to Michaelerkirche, the former Court Church, and "Looshus", built by architect Adolf Losa in 1910 and caused this scandal at one time. This house "without eyebrows" (without stucco) compared with the sewer hatch, and Kaiser Franz Joseph even wanted to demolish the construction, because he could not carry a type of building, which opened from its windows of his apartment. Be that as it may, the house has retained life, but Kaiser moved to another part of Hofburg.
Semicircle Michaelerplatz exists from 1889-93. With its construction, Ferdinand Kirshner used, in his own way interpreting, the project of the XVIII century, which belonged to one of the most significant architects of the Baroque era Fisher von Erlah. On both sides of the semicircle decorated with two impressive fountains. One symbolizes the dominion of Austria to the sea (sculptor Rudolf Vair, 1895) and the foreman of the empire on land (Edmund Helmer, 1897). The entrance is decorated with marble sculptures of Lorenzo Mattielly, depicting the feats of Hercules.
Hofburg – Outdoor Architectural Complex. The oldest of its preserved parts, the so-called "Swiss yard", dating from the XIII century. Sometime, Swiss mercenaries carried the watch. Penetrating into the courtyard through the gate of the XYI century. You will see Burgkapell, originally a Gothic construction, completed in the baroque era. In this church on Sundays and in the days of church holidays there are masses in which participates "Court musical chapel", consisting of choir boys (famous "Wiener Zengerknaben") and the orchestra of the Vienna State Opera.
Opening one of the doors in the Swiss yard, you can get into "Shatzkamemer" – "Golden pantry", One of the richest in the world where, in particular, are the treasures of the Order of the Golden Rune of the Higher Order of Austria and Spain. Masterpiece of the Assembly – the Crown of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation – the symbol of more than a thousand-year German rule in Europe, made in 962 for coronation in Rome Otto 1. The Austrian Imperial Crown is also kept in the Golden Store (1602,.
In Hofburg you can walk for a long time. We advise you to go to the inspection and recently renovated Kaiser apartments, where, by the way, the our emperor Alexander stopped during the Vienna Congress 1.
Passing through the Hofburg through, you fall into the ring and stand, full of impressions and feeling light fatigue.
It’s time to the hotel! If you used our advice and stopped in one of the hotels recommended by us. You can, having gathered the balance of strength, to do a short way on foot, along the ring: you will have no more than 20 minutes. Taxi trip will no longer more than 100 sewed.SNG.
You came to the hotel, knead the naked legs and stay in thought: Will not enough for today? Of course, you can relax and lie down from the TV, but you are in Vienna! Take a shower, releaving and go ahead!
The choice of evening leisure opportunities is almost frightened by its diversity, but we will help you. Go B "Raimund theater" on musical "The beauty and the Beast" and feel the eternal magic of fairy tales. This performance goes in Vienna for no first year with a consistently crowded room, and the public, as you know, are always right. If you choose the musical "Elizabeth" v "Theater ai der wines" . We promise the spectacular stage embodiment of what appeared to you in Hofburg.
In October, the world premiere of the musical will be held in this theater "Vampire dance" In the dire use of Roman Polyansky (music of Jim Steinman, Libretto Mich. Merchant), which will undoubtedly become a theatrical sensation. We do not know how now go to theaters in Russia, but in Vienna there is a special ritual. Soon elegant to feel the great-grandfather, but not the burden of your dress. You can dine either before or after presentation. Restaurants in Vienna so much that there is a special guide. What do you prefer? Local cuisine, Italians, Greeks, Spaniards, Latin Americans, Japanese or Chinese, who are here at every turn? To save "imperial" Fight day, go to "Three Gusar", in one of the most famous traditional Viennese restaurants. In the intermission, as usual, drink champagne, and after the performance, to finish the day, go to the bar, best – in Edenbar. Eden means "Eden", earthly paradise, and, we must pay tribute, in the bar you will feel really on the top of bliss.
Eden – the most famous Bar of Vienna, where the highest light is going. Men without a tie and jackets do not let. The exception is made only in the summer heat, when the jacket becomes a grievous burden. If necessary, the tie and the jacket will rented you. Well, and the lady, if she is really a lady, will always remain elegant and will be dressed as a proper case. The twilight of the cozy bar in the monarchist style is filled with the sounds of music (fine Italian singer, accompanied by piano, and you can order your favorite melodies and dance to dawn all evening.
I reach the hotel (the bar is located in the heart, not far from Stefanplatz), you plunge into the blissful soybeans and will dream about the beautiful Vienna .
In order not to immediately interrupt the connection of times, taste "Kaiserovsky" Breakfast in cafe "Landtmann". Morning can be devoted "Shopping". All the most expensive stores are concentrated on Kerntherstraße, Graben and the streets adjacent to them. Addresses of these stores can be found on the pages of our publication.
In the ring, between hotels "Bristol" and "Ana Grand Hotel", where the color of society was walking before, is the most luxurious Vienna department store "Ringstrassegalerien" with 70 elegant shops and 9 restaurants. Mariahilferstrasse is very popular – shopping street near the center with many "boutique" and department stores offering goods but more sparing prices.
In Vienna – 23 district, and each of them is worthy of attention.
You can choose between the baroque and modern, between the greenery of the gardens and the cool churches, between the visual art masterpieces and the entertainment of the poster.
It happened in Christmas 1857. Peace Burgers still laughed in beds, breathing in the aroma of fir needles and candles and anticipating the joy of breakfast and the morning newspaper, without suspecting that the Decree of Caiser Franz Joseph is printed on the demolition of serfs, which have surrendered to the city center. The purpose of this action is to give a more representative nature of the capital, combine the core of the Vienna with the foreclosers. "Boxing ring" means "ring", But in fact, this boulevard has the shape of the horseshoe, the sides of which go to "tamed" Think – ‘Danube Channel" (Because of frequent cavitation in 1870-75, the Danube Rubo within the city was settled).
Separate areas of Ringstrasse have their names: Parring, Schubertrics, Onernring and so on. One of the opportunities to embrace the rings panorama – to drive on trams "1" or "2", Guiding but Ruga Ring – Kai (Embankment) Ring.
A lot of architects participated in the building of the boulevard, to exceed each other in originality. As a result, a conglomerate of various styles occurred, once criticized as "Style Meszanina", over the years, however, established as its own "Ringstrassestil" – The history of art knows a lot of similar examples. In the ring you will see a lot of interesting buildings, pay your attention to the most significant of them.
Neo-etco Rathaus-Town Hall of Vienna was built in 1872-83 by Friedrich Schmidt, the builder of the Cologne Cathedral. His central tower is crowned "Iron Town Hall Mother", become one of the symbols of Vienna. In front of the town hall, decorated with fountains and sculptures of outstanding Austrians, among which Johann Strauss-Father and Izifef Liner. From November, the area in front of the town hall is decorated with a huge tree, the dominant of the Christmas market, where the old and old are having fun and. In the summer, the area turns into an open theater where the festivals of the arts and the concepts of the circus-shapito are held surrounded by trays with souvenirs and various soverees: the crowns and guests of the capital have the opportunity to get bread and spectacles.
Parliament (1873-83) – Creation of Danchanin Theofila Hansen. Architect for many years spent in Athens, which inspired him to the project in Greek style. Before the Parliament Building – Statue of Athens-Pallades.
The most famous Dramatic Theater Vienna – Burgteater is also in the ring.It was built in 1874-88, but the project of Architect Corrugated Zemper. The lush theater interior is decorated with frescoes of Gustav Clima and Franz Match. Highly damaged during the war, the theater was again open in 1955.
Music Mecca Vienna – Stateseker. The authors of her project – Edward Van der Nül and Augusta Sikkardsburg drew his inspiration in French Renaissance. May 25, 1869 Opera solemnly opened "Don Juan" Mozart. The building, which today admire, at one time was the subject of fierce attacks: architects were accused of all mortal sins, allowed himself criticism and kaiser. Without soothing such a shame, Van der Nyul hanged himself, two months later died of Sikkardsburg infarcity. If you believe stories, Franz Joseph has avoided since then to express his opinion on art issues, consuming invariably stereotypical and now has a nonegative phrase – "It was beautiful and very pleased me. ".Destroyed during the war, the recovered opera was opened in 1955 almost simultaneously with the burgteateater.
In February, the most famous fleece of Austria is held in the stateseker. For one night, the auditorium and the scene turn into a huge dance floor. Farming of flower garlands, luxury toilets, sparkling jewels – the highest light of Austria appears in all its brilliance. All high state and other duties are forgotten, and after the forever beautiful polona, where the white toilets of debutants shall shade the pieces and uniforms of partners when the conditional signal sounds, which can be roughly translated as: "All dance Waltz!", The holiday begins, lasting until the morning.
Not far from the postsoper – another "Temple of Arts":"Muzicfene"- House of unmatched Viennese philharmonics. The building was built and 1867-69 by Teofil Hansen, the author of the Parliament project. January 1st B "Golden Hall" Muzicfene is held a New Year’s concert, broadcast by television for the whole world. This concert, like the Openerbal, is one of the central events of secular life. The honor to conduct concerts, where the works of Strausses and Liner are mostly sound, and only the most famous conductors are honored – Herbert Von Karaians, Carlos Klaiber, Riccardo Muta.
On both sides of Maria Terezia Square with its monument are architectural twins – the Museum of Art History and the Nistory History Museum, built in 1871-81 by Gottfried Earth and Karl Hazenauer in the style of Italian Renaissance.
Pride of the Museum of Artist History – His art gallery with Durera, Rembrandt, Rafael, Titian, Belakes, Dutch Masters The world’s largest brayget collection.
Light Ring – His Parks. Most Popular – Stadpark – City Park, Outlooking in 1862. Among the numerous monuments that adorn the park, the monument to the King of Waltz Johhan Strauss (Sculptor Edmund Helmer, 11) 23 year). Summer evenings in the park playing an orchestra, and you can forget in an insane vortex under the charming sounds familiar from childhood music.
The oldest park of Ring Burggarten (1820), which is a continuation of Hofburg. His main decoration is a monument to Mozart (1896) of Viktor Tilgner’s work.
Beliest Folkgarten – People’s Park – in Italian style. In the center of the park – the so-called Tezay temple, a copy of the Greek Temple, built by architect Nietro Nobile for sculpture canons "Theses killing minotaur", which is now in the MYZEE art history. In Folkgerte, there was forever marble Kaiserin Elizabeth. The proximity of the Tezese temple reminds her of her beloved Greece.
Among the many variety of excursions offered to the guests of Vienna, hiking, dedicated to any topic.
Love, enjoyment and vices. These concepts played a big role in the fate of Austria, and it is no coincidence that one of the key areas of foreign policy was matrimonial transactions.
Instead of wars – weddings. "Let others be fighting, and happy Austria is combined with marriage"- Under this motto Austria existed not one century. In our summer release, we will walk through, perhaps already familiar to the places, but we will tell about things, most likely, you still have unknown.
Well, who could, for example, think that the Central Street of Vienna Cirntreterstrasse for many years was the abundance of representatives of the most ancient profession.
Hotel "San" not least known due to the cake with the same name. This cake approximately 160 years ago, Franz Zacher came up with a student of a chef at that time. The building of the hotel, built in 1870, soon became the center of the secular life of the capital of Austria.
Here were often members of the royal family, sometimes proving that "nothing human is alone". So, the nephew of Kaiser Franz Joseph Ersgertz Otto once in Ugar, the fun reached the point that she was divided, leaving only a saber with which the dance was performed on the table in his own choreography. This incident was immediately reported to the kaiser – the pious monarch came to horror and sternly read the different relative.
The world rank reached the hotel with Anna Zaher – a remarkable figure of his time, distinguished by independent praises and manners – she allowed himself, for example, smoking cigars, which is rare enough today.
After World War II, fame "Zane" Due to many reasons, it began to clone to the sunset. In 1930, when Anna Zaher died, the hotel was on the eve of bankruptcy. The new owners saved the position, who, as well as the former, fell in love, dreamed and despite. In the 80s of our century, the hotel took place in the hotel. The American ambassador of the Damm (lady of Austrian origin) was married for the owner "Zane" Gürtler. This lady, formerly the Secretary of Reagan at the time of his Governors in California, made a brilliant political career. Her personal life proceeded violently – the marriage with Gürtler was the fourth, but not the last. Gürtler after the divorce again married, but his seemingly fulfilled life, it was tragically cut off – he committed suicide in a hunting house.
Picky "3Akher", on the site of which was once theater " At the Carthmother’s gate" (as you remember, until the second half of the XIX century, the city was surrounded by the fortress walls, through the gate of which residents were penetrated into the domestic city), and head to Aligustinerkirche, the Church of the Monkwalls, which is not far.
This church was the court church of the Royal Dynasty, where many famous weddings were held, in particular, Mary Teresia with Franz Stefan Larring. It was a marriage of love, an eloquent testimony of which 16 children and record in the diary of Mary Teresia after the death of Franz Stephen ". My favorite spouse, with whom I was happy. ". Happy not at the fact that the spouse did not differ in special moral stability and often changed his faithful. A wedding of Napoleon with 19-year-old Maria Louise Austrian, where the groom, truth, was missing, took place in the church of Augustine. At that time, the distance was overcome, as you know, with difficulty and the possibilities of movement were different. Napoleon’s absent on the wedding represented Uncle Maria Louise Erzgertick Karl. From Marriage Napoleon with Maria Louise, the Crown Prince Eglon, who lived a short and inglorious life and ending his days in Schönbrunne.
One of the most romantic weddings held in Augustinerkirche, wedding Joseph Franc with a 16-year-old beauty Elizabeth vittelsbach background.
Despite the monarch of privileges, and maybe precisely because of them, the fate of both was not very happy, and marriage was, to put it mildly, a kind: Most of the matrimonial life, Elizabeth spent on travels, away from Franz Joseph and the Vienna Yard hateful. Kaiser, however, has retained his feeling until the end of life, testifying to his words: "No one knows how I loved this woman. "
BXOd in Augustinerkirche is located on JosefSplatz Square, which Joseph II Monument, Son Mary Teresia. Love Well this monarch-reformer was also full of experiences. His first spouse was Isabella Parm, which he was hot. Unfortunately, two years after the wedding of Isabella died, leaving the cake of two children. Mom has been thinking for a long time what to do with her son – It was not easy to find the bride. After a long search, the choice fell on Maria Bavarian, who had a repulsive appearance and, and besides, an objectural suffering that suffered by terrible skin disease, which brings her innumerable suffering and, how to easily guess, not prompted by the development of gentle married feelings. This woman was also not destined for a long terrestrial existence – at the age of 26, Joseph was a widow for the second time and decided that he was pretty. He, of course, did not learn the life of the hermit, but the favorite of the monarch remains univocked, which is historically explained.
Beloved Caiser Austria Unlike, let’s say, from France never intervened in politics and did not play a significant role in the public life of the Empire. Personal and political spheres in Austria were always strictly delimited.
In Vienna, many mansions are preserved, wearing the names of their former owners.One of these mansions – Palais Pallavicini. His first owner had a huge state, however, as it often happens, not without deception of the state – he paid significantly less taxes than he was supposed to be.
Money, as you know, come and go. Son easily wondered by her father, including the palace and a valuable collection of painting. Bankruptcy – item is sad.
Let’s return to love. Kaiser Franz Joseph, such loved by Elizabeth and who did not meet from her part of the desired answer, was looking for consolation and female caress.
For many years, his friend was Catarina Shratt, the actress of the court theater. For the first time, Kaiser saw her on the performance, then – on the audience: Franz Joseph personally took all new actors and actresses of his theater in Hofburg. Schratt made at the monarch such a strong impression that he brought her to himself and for the last 20 years of life she was his trustee and beloved, which confirms their intimate correspondence.
Kaiser, who did not differ in particular generosity, was blown, however. Catharina. In addition, it should be noted that he had a very vague idea of the value of things. Once upon a time, having bought a ring, Shwrat asked Kaiser: "What do you think how much it costs?" – " I do not know, 50 guilders?" -"Five thousand Guldenov!" -" Well, nothing, also inexpensive. "
One of the Gifts of Kaiser, who can see anyone today, Villa Shratt in one of the most prestigious areas of Vienna Hitzing.
On Michaelerplatz Square, at the entrance to Hofburg, the Review of the Ventors and Guests of the city presented the results of the excavations of the Roman settlement. Archaeologists have established that during the Romans there was an erotic center here, which confirm the motifs of wall painting.
Next to Michaelerplatz – Kohlmarkt, the street, on which there is a lot of remarkable, where, in particular, there is a confectionery Demel, which has an interesting story. In 1786, confectioner from Würtenberg opened the pastry shop, in which he worked down until his death. His widow, along with his son, expanded the company by opening the second confectionery. The new owner soon became the former Demmel.
The most famous representative of Clan Demem became Anna, who has replaced the elegant confectionery on Kohlmarkt for many years and for his merits first in Austria awarded honorary title "Commercial adviser". Traditions introduced by Anna Demel, alive and shelter. and you will feel it by visiting the pastry shop where you will be offered quite special "corporate" Coffee and countless varied cakes and pastries.
We wish you sweet life, full of love and pleasure!
Once in Austria, sin not to visit Salzburg and its picturesque surroundings with world famous resorts. 3Alsburg is located in the northeastern part of the province of the same name, on the border with Germany, which he was part of over the Millennium. By its name, the city is obliged to fortress Salzachburg, which was on Mount Nonnberg.
The founder of Salzburg is considered to be Saint Rupert, in which the construction of the monastery of St. Peter began about in 696. Saint Rupert became the first archbishop of Salzburg, the centuries-old dominion of the church was established from it. The last Salzburg archbishop was Hieronomus Colloredo, in 1800, which fled from Napoleon and three years later, who had developed his title in Vienna. For some time, the city went to Austria, which Bavaria changed, n only in 1816, by decision of the Vienna Congress, he finally received his Austrian affiliation: but in the village of the Austrian Empire, Salzburg remained a cosmopolitan capital, small and simultaneously unlimited.
The city is located at an altitude of 425 meters above sea level, its natural decoration – the river 3 minutes, but both shores it is located.
One of the characters of the 3lzburg Fortress Hohensalzburg. EE story begins in the XI century, when there was a wooden fortification. Soon the stone walls appeared, and then during the sixth centuries the fortress continuously expanded and rebuilt.
Completed in the XYI century, she began during the thirty-year war with an unbreakable stronghold of Catholicism. Salzburg – the city of amazing churches. Especially famous for the Salzburg Cathedral with the towers raising in the sky. 14 years old worked by the architect Santino Solari over this monumental creation of church architecture, erected on the foundation of the Romanesque Cathedral, from which he took only a font: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was baptized in this bronze bowl.
Social School of Salzburg Small and cozy, such as, for example. Waagplatz or Alter Markt, a peculiar corner of the city with the smallest house of Salzburg (number 109) and Courtnon pharmacy, such a beautiful and mysterious, that even the purchase of pills from headaches turns into an event. Just a few steps – and you in another world. By FranziskanerGasse, from the Cathedral Square, you fall into the festival area, according to Wiener Philharmonikerstrasse, the former market lane – to the university area, which, despite its academic dignity, turns into a market square every morning.
KollegIenkirche, the monumental creation of Fisher von Erlach, through trays with saint looks on his VIS and VIS in the style of Rococo – a house where Mozart was born.
The main facade of this building in GetreideGasse 9 has been strongly changed, but some of the house facing the university area has retained its original appearance. From the interiors of the building only the dance hall corresponds to the Mozartt era.
About Mozart is also reminded by the Vienna Garden Pavilion, who belonged to the Librettist of the composer Schicanager; In this pavilion, Mozart worked on "Magic flute". In 1873, the relic was donated by Salzburg, and today you can see her behind the garden Mirabel, on Schgwarzachstrasse. The name of the Great Composer became, as often happens, and the subject of commerce, which is confirmed, in particular, the most famous MozartKugeln. Ix history is rightly connected with the birthday genius, which appeared here on the world on January 27, 1756.
In 1890, the Salzburg Confectioner created the MozartKugeln manufacturer’s recipe.
He roded the ball from Marzipan, put on him a nut cream and planted a ball on a wooden stick, which was lowered into liquid chocolate, rotating a wand until she was covered with a uniform chocolate layer.
This manual way of work, requiring large spending time, could not satisfy the rapidly growing needs, so the firm known for its traditions "Mirabel" put production on the industrial basis.
Genuine Salzburg MozartKugeln from "Mirabel" In the memorable cherry with gold package, soon won great popularity, being always welcome a typical Austrian souvenir and Austria symbol around the world. Firm "Mirabel" It also produces MozartTaler (Taler – ancient coin). Cooked from marzipan, light and dark nougatcreme, lured by chocolate, they promise to you gastronomic pleasures.
Walking on getreidegasse, do not miss a single courtyard, where you are waiting for many beauties. On this street, you will find all that your soul is pleased, stores souvenirs, exquisite fashion, antiques. In many houses, you will see the signs of guilds – the memories of the Middle Ages.
Salzburg – a vivid example of a baroque city, where this style appears in all its brilliance, confirming what is the garden Mirabel with its terraces, marble sculptures and fountains. He was defeated by the plans of Johanna Bernhard Fisher von Erlah around 1690. In the former bird aviary there is an exhibition pavilion; Noteworthy as well "Green Theater", One of the oldest kinds and "Garden gnomes", decorated with gloomy and ugly creatures, – depressing the reflection of what the Lord was at that time.
Availability visits Palace Hellbrunn, built by decree of the Archbishop Sittacus and located about eight kilometers from Salzburg. Hellbrunn Park is decorated with sculptures and fountains, including "Shutihi", famous to the our reader but Peterhof. They say that the loving fun Archbishop served to guests in the park, and when they reached a certain degree of intoxication, the hidden mechanisms were turned on, and water flows were lowered.
Having told you about the city and its surroundings, we want to remind you about the event that turns Salzburg to the temple of music lovers, about the Salzburg Festival. The big festival palace was solemnly opened on July 26, 1960. Dasified "Cavalier Rose" Richard Straus, conducted Herbert von Karaians (Karaians made his debut at the Salzburg Festival in 1933). Salzburg disretered by the center of one of the most significant artistic festivals – his cultural traditions go deepstly: from Minnesingners through Karl Maria Von Weber to Mozart. The prototype of the current Salzburg festival – the Mozartov Festival, which was held, is quite irregular, on the initiative of the conductor Hans Richter.
In 1906, Richard Strauss was conducted at the Mozartt Festival, in 1910- Gustav Malener. The idea to organize a wider scale festival washed in the air.
She attracted not only musicians, but also actors, and writers. The artistic council prepared the first Salzburg festival, in particular, the then Director of the Vienna Opera Richard Strauss and Franz Schalk, Actor and Director Max Reinhardt, Theater Artist Alfred Roller and Writer Khuto von Hofmanstal. On August 22, 1920, at the Cathedral Square was first shown "Jedermann" Hofmanstal in Rainhardt.
Jedermann – Name, all, any of us. Huto von Hofmanstal gave his work a subtitle – "The story of how a rich man died".
The Salzburg Festival is not only a stunning musical holiday, it is an event in society, where the highest light flocks. "The festival is the most natural and happy thought that can only come to mind. The inexhaustible source of the purest poetry in the frame of the wonderful city and the wonderful nature – who would not dream of days on the slope of days from the darkness of this devastating time, together with the people of goodwill Pillarinity there", – He wrote Gerhard Hawpman in 1928, but today it’s hard to disagree with him.
Salzburg and its inhabitants for a long time are masters to entertain curious guests with various spectacles to keep their peace and avoid the invasion of personal life.
But, on the other hand, the city is always happy to take his sincere friends of delicate and unobtrusive friends. We are moderate that you will not only become for the Salzburg, but also for all Austria, it is such friends, so our separation will not be long, for you will certainly want to go back here soon.
See you soon! Servus!
Our little dictionary *
You will be surprised by the simplicity of expressions that will open the way to the hearts of the Austrians.
When meeting (except very official) – "Sierwus!" For farewell – "dad!" (almost "while") Esley someone stumbled or encountered someone – "opala!" With surprise – "Ezus Maria!" If you find someone cute, – "FESH!" Vice versa – "Shirh".
And finally, to express admiration – "Tol", or that is just just -"super!"
Like a polite person, you must remember first of all the following expressions: