On the territory of Spain it is difficult to allocate a single national kitchen type. There is a huge number of regional culinary schools, traditions and flows, and each of them may differ significantly from the generally accepted idea of Spanish cuisine. She herself is extremely diverse, since the Roman and Moorish traditions, French and African elements, the traditional Canvas of Mediterranean cuisine and many elements delivered from the new light. The original local cuisine is very simple – it is the basis of meat and olive oil, saffron, peppers and spices, greens and cheese, various products from flour and, of course, wine. Western in wine, baking with sheep cheese, grilled frying, as well as wide use of sage and walnuts are characterized almost for the whole country. But everything else often happens so indeed that it is customary to allocate regional cuisine, which are then quite conditionally unite in what we are accustomed to call Spanish cooking.
At any time and everywhere on the table are served "Tapas" (Tapas) – a variety of light snacks. This is the beginning of any meal, and easy "snack" in front of the main dishes. Under the concept "Tapas", which in the northern regions of the country is sometimes also called "Pinchos" (Pinchos, Pintxos), olives and olives fall, fresh bread and "Hamon", Paella and omelet, dried cod and squid, sandwiches or just sliced pieces of fish or meat, mollusks in a grain, fesry bread "Pan de Higo" and lepseki "Pan-de-Oli" with olive oil and pulp tomato, cheese and "Pattais Bravas" (spicy fried potatoes), octopus and anchovies, fried mushrooms and eggplants – Variations are infinite.
Soups are most popular as the first dish, especially thick puree soups, such as manual cream soup with almonds, tomato soup with garlic bread, cold bread soup, onion, rice and tomatoes, garlic puree soup "Sopa de Aho", "Puchurgo" (nude soup, beef, sausages "Chorizo", ham and vegetables with dumplings), various fish soups (first "Bowlavisa"), "Kidido Madrileno" (pea soup with croutons), soup cream with mollusks, soup from bull tail with tomatoes, famous cold soup "gazpacho" From the rubbed tomatoes, cucumber, olive oil and spices, as well as various sweet soups. After soup often follows "Intermediate" Appetizer from pasta or stew vegetables – in this case, the second dish vegetables are no longer served.
Meat, Fish and Seafood
Meat is usually stewed with vegetables and sauce or grilled on the grill. Moreover, the Spaniards are not afraid to mix meat with fish or fruits, quite often include various sausages and smoked dishes, and all this is usually accompanied by a rather small portion of the garnish of roasted potatoes and salad. Such dishes are widely known as "Chapfaina" (stew liver with vegetables and spices), "Pepia" (stew with butter, ham and spices chicken) and very similar to him by recipe "Cylindron" from beef or lamb, kebab "Pinchos Morunos", "pisto" (fried with eggplants, onions and tomatoes ham, served both in hot and cold), famous "paella" (rice with the gifts of the sea or meat, with spices and greens), "Churraco" (grilled meat) and omnipresent pancakes with meat, "Chanfin" (stew with pepper, greens and dry wine chicken fillet, not to be confused with "Chapfayna"), "Rax" (fried pork in tomato-cream sauce with wine), sausages "Chorizo" ("Choriso") with the most different handbrokers and processing methods. Well, and, of course, a rather characteristic Spanish omelet – recipes literally dozens, but the bright feature is quenching, not frying, as well as various additional ingredients – cheese, mushrooms, spickens, ham, all the same "Chorizo", chicken pieces and t. D. Extremely popular different "Burgados" (snails), sausages, steaks, meatballs and cutlets that are not just fry, but often still extinguished in sauce or white wine.
In meat dishes are brightly traced various national roots – it is worth trying "Cordo" – Baked on coal lambs from the northern regions, Basque "Schultyton de Bew" (huge grilled beef cutlets) and numerous meat dishes with sauce "Cylindron", "COCHINILO-Al-Fuego" (milk piglet) or "Perechal" (pair of lamb) from the central part of Spain, characteristic blood sausages "Morcheril" from Leon and Asturias, traditional for Castile and Leon Roast milk calf, goat or piggy, Madrid "calos" (Scar with blood sausage, sauce and spices), Galician "Lakun Con Gelos" (Pork legs with trousers leaves), "Navarro-Cochiprito" (acute ram of stew) from Navarre, "Carnation de Festa" (pickled pork, roasted on the lattice) and "Chuletas", "Chutones" or "T’Bonez" (chop meat with sharp sauce "Mocho") from the Canary Islands, "Enpanadas" (Pies with meat, fish and green peas) and sausage "Meeting" With Balearic Islands. And, very popular dishes cooked in pots, going on and on the first, and on the second – simple and satisfying, they mostly have a centuries-old hornie and serve as the subject of pride in a populated place – it is easy to guess how many recipes such dishes exist in the country.
Catalan cuisine is so diverse that it is usually isolated as a separate culture in cooking. The most famous dishes of this region can be attributed to chow "Eskudel", Catalan white sausages "Botifara" and gentle roast "Kasuela", Fried on Saly Pork Sausages with White Beans "Monhete-am-Bodifara", "Kochinilo-Asado" (fried on coal milk piglet) and "Cordero-Assado" (lamb on a similar recipe), boiled cuttlefish salad with olives, rabbit with snails, swine steag "Kapi-and-sweat", Katalon kolochka or roast from boar, dessert "Miel and Mato" (Cottage cheese with honey), ear "bitch de paist" from "brine" (sea damn), assorted seafood "Sarsuela" and other sea cuisine dishes. And, of course, "paella" (rice with gifts of the sea or meat, spices and greens), which "invented", As it is believed to be in Catalonia. Moreover, the Catalans, unlike the remaining regions of the country, pay great attention to sauces ("Salsa") – "Sofrito", "Sampain", "Ali-Ol", "Romysko" and "Picada". As a wide variety of sauces can be found, perhaps only on the Canary Islands.
Well, of course, it is impossible not to mention the famous Spanish "Hamon" – Pork ham, a peculiar analogue of Parm ham, around the manufacture and consumption of which a real gastronomic cult was created in Spain. That, in general, and not surprisingly – His varieties here are hundreds, and the story of the "Khamon" There are already at least 2 thousand years. There are two main types of this dish – "Hamon-Serrano" (Jamon Serrano, that is "mountain") and "Hamon-Iberico" (Jamon Iberico, or Pata Negra), differing pigs and their diets, as well as the method and duration of cooking. Also, his peculiar subspecies are considered "Habugo" (Jabugo) from Wales and "Trevez" (Trevelez) from Granada. Today "Hamon" It is produced in Spain everywhere (the exception is only the coast) and is a dear dish, which is mainly on the festive table.
Despite the fact that Spain has an extended sea coast and an ancient tradition of cooking seafood, fish dishes Nowadays are sufficiently non-cheap pleasure. But this is a pleasure, because the Spaniards love and know how to prepare and fish, and various mollusks. Casual dishes include ordinary saline or smoked cod, squid and octopuses, as well as simply fried sea or river fire (which is much more expensive) Fish. Fish stew (famous "Sarsuela"), boiled and fry, bake (including very typical – in salt), boldly mixed with rice, meat and vegetables, served with vegetable oil sauce, vinegar and podpid pepper, and sometimes squeeze sauce "Mocho" (Recipes for this traditional ingredient in each area of their own).
Honored Glory uses gentle fish dishes from the Canary Islands (primarily knife fish, or Navaha, Vieha, Bokeklagro, Sami, Salem, Tuna, Mackerel and Chicharro), "Bakalyao alpha Pil" (Cod in garlic sauce), "MARMITAKO" (Macrel with potatoes) and "Changurro" (Assorted clams and crabs) from Basque countries, tiny fried fish "Pescatos-Fritos" (eaten right with heads and bones) from Andalusia, traditional Valencia "Caldero" Fish and rice (prepared on coals in a special deep pan), Asturian cod, boiled octopus "Pulpo-a-Feira", Fish stew in a pot "Merlusa A la-Galga" and fried eel "Angulas" (or "Anguina") from Galicia, cod "Viskinese" and "Saw-Pil" From the country of Basque, Anchovies from Andalusia and Catalan lobsters. Seafood is good fresh oysters (Ostras), mollusks (Almejas, Lapas), squid (Chiperones, Calamares), Caracatia (Choco), shrimps (Camarones, Gambas), Hams Anchovies (Boquerones), "Mexilones" (baked mussels) as well "Sarsuela" from mollusks and delicate "’Viery" (baked with mushrooms and sea scallop onions in its own sink).
Contrary to generally accepted opinion, vegetables in Spanish cuisine do not play a special role. These are simply excellent salads and side dishes, the characteristic ingredient of many stewed dishes and soups, as well as an indispensable component "Tapas". However, this does not mean that their meaning is small, they are simply used to underline the taste of the main product, to give it freshness and flavor. Moreover, the Spaniards are pretty freely mixing a variety of vegetables – corn with potatoes, pepper with green mango, cucumbers and tomatoes – with yogurt. Spanish salads are simple as a recipe, but very tasty – only fresh ingredients go on the table (even salinity is extremely rare) and necessarily a first-class olive oil – an indispensable component of almost all dishes of this kind. It is characteristic that they often add fish, pieces of meat, hamon or sausages, looking at them as peculiar "spices". Often, vegetables serve as the basis of soup, for example – the famous garlic soup consists only of broth, roasted bread toast, garlic and eggs – and all! As simple, but very tasty and other vegetable dishes. If the case, of course, does not concern "Calcota" (Calcot) – Sweet Luke-Soon, around the preparation and use of which a whole cult has developed, especially in Catalonia (there are even special holidays – Calcotada), where, as it is believed, growing "The only correct variety" this unpretentious at first glance.
Rice, fried potatoes, legumes are widely used as a garnish (especially beans – indispensable ingredient "Chorizo"), corn, pickled cauliflower and t. D. And the same potatoes, for example, itself serves as the basis of many independent dishes, among which are widely known "Nachos" (chips with salsa, pepper and molten cheese), Valencia "Wertano" (Fraga from beets, beans and beans), beans "La Bayes" and "El Barco", peas "Fuenesauko" and lentils "La Armunha" From Castile and Leon, "moss" (extinguished with garlic, tomatoes and spices Potatoes with egg) or "Tortilla" (a peculiar omelet with potatoes – Spaniards such dishes bake, not fry), as well as simply fried young potatoes "Papas-Arrugadas" (Usually served as a side dish for meat dishes) or "Hofio" (roasted corn flour) with canary.
Cheese – another visiting card of Spanish cuisine, the legal object of national pride. Unlike literally obsessed on the Cheese of Italy, France or Switzerland, the Spaniards are trying not to experiment with the recipe preparation of this product, but also carefully select the source components. Local grades of cheese are literally hundreds, but the most widely popular is acute "Cabrales", Ovechy "manched" from la-mancia, "Machon" With red pepper, smoked "Idasabal" from Basque, sweet "Question" and "Self" From Castile and Leon. It is characteristic that the cheese at the end of the meal is rarely filed – it is much more often used as one of the main ingredients of the dish (Spanish baked dishes are almost unthinkable without cheese, for example) or in the composition "Tapas".
Speaking about Spanish desserts, you have to start, of course, with fresh local fruits: avocado (Aguacate), Papaya (Papaya), Guayaba, Melon (Melon), Mango and Manga (Manga), Ananas, Oranges, peaches and pears are constantly present on the table either by themselves, or as part of fresh juices, pies and jams. It is worth paying attention to the passion of the Spaniards to various puddings, very sweet cakes with almond cream, moussam ("Bienmesabe"), shaken milk ("Lea-Assada"), caramels ("cream") and pudding based on it, honey ("Miel"), "Tourron" (halva), fruits in chocolate and other sweets. Very good "Churros" (long thin dough harnesses, roasted in the form of loops), thick and straight lines of their analogues "Porras" or rings "Bunuel", Toasts "Tostados" with jam or oil, "Mermelada" (marmalade), cookies ("Pastel" or "pain") and his almond option – "Soplilos", Puff-dough air buns "Ensaimadas" and desserts of sweet potatoes, pumpkins and almonds from the Balearic Islands. Local ice cream is famous for good quality ("Helo" or "Gelado").
Almond milk and drink made of almond milk are very popular from non-alcoholic beverages – "Orasha", or "Oricat", numerous fruit juices, mineral water as well "Guarapo" (Sweet palm juice). Espresso coffee is widespread, which is boiled enough (most establishments are generally used only coffee machines), black coffee ("Cafe Solo") It is much less likely as "Cafe-Cortado" (with milk). Very popular "Carajilo" – Coffee with Brandy, Cognac or Whiskey. Recently, increasingly distributed in cities gets "Americano" – A rather weak drink of the American sample supplied in large cups. But tea is offered much less – it is more often replaced by various herbal infusions – "Manzanilla" (chamomile), "Pole" (mint), "Herba Louisa" (with verbaine lemon) and other. But the Spanish tea is similar to ours – usually it is served quite strong, but tea with milk ("te-con") more like a glass of milk, with floating ones tea bag. A very popular morning drink is a hot chocolate that the Spaniards boil very thick and sweet.
Wine ("Vino") – an indispensable participant of all Spanish feasts. The country has a wide variety of excellent wines manufactured in 57 districts. Local wines are inexpensive and high-quality, and homemade wine makes here in quantities comparable to industrial, and in quality it often exceeds "branded" brands. Wine varieties here is an unimaginable set, and not all of them have the same quality, so it is worth navigating the traditional product marking system. Wines (Blanco – White, Rosado – Pink, Tinto – Red) Strictly divided into CRIANZA (excerpt for at least two years, of which at least half a year in the oak barrel), RRERSERVA (excerpt for white and pink wines at least two years, of which at least half a year in the oak barrel; for red – minimum three years exposure, of which at least a year in Oak barrel) and Gran Reserva (five-year exposure for red wine, of which at least two years in the oak barrel; and four years of excerpts, of which at least six months in Oak barrel – for white and pink varieties). You can also navigate on a special brand DO (Denominacion de Origen), which is supplied by each bottle of wine, which has passed the procedure for certifying the quality standard, – the highest category wines are supplied with a DOC sticker (Denominacion de Origen Calificada).
From the city of Jerez de la Frontera in the south-west of Andalusia, the most famous wine of Spain occurs – Jerez and his options – Fino (Fino or Jerez Seco – Dry), Amontilled (semi-sweet), Oloroso and Dulche (sweet varieties), and also Manzanilla (nominally sherry is not, because it is produced outside the officially designated area – in Sanlukar de Barrameda, however, the recipe is exactly the same as in the manufacture of a classic drink) and montilla (made in Cordoba somewhat different recipe – without adding alcohol).
Special attention deserves "Kawa" – Spanish champagne, manufactured at exactly the same recipes as the famous French varieties, and the quality is not worse (if not better). And here is one of the country’s business cards – Sangria Wine as such is not. This is essentially its cold PUNS – a mixture of wine, ice, fruit juices or lemonade. But it is quite inexpensive and refreshes well in the heat, so it is often used during all sorts of carnivals and festivals. Accordingly and its preparation of thousands.
Each area of Spain produces its own liqueurs, in Galicia and Ivice (Ibice) – infused on herbs, in Navarre – Spicy Pacharan, in Levante – Absinthe, in Andalusia – Casal, A near Madrid, in Chinchon, – strong anise vodka. Patxaran varieties from Navarre and Basque countries, Catalan Ratafia or Galician Orujo, as well as first-class ginios Larios from Malaga. Widely known "conak" – Excellent local brandy with vanilla aroma (most popular varieties of Magno, Soberano, Carlos III, Carlos I, Lepanto and Gran Duque de Alba), as well as similar to Armagnac Mascaro and Torres. Very popular rum, both local and imported from Latin America countries.
Beer (CERVEZA) is quite good quality, but it is more expensive than wines. The best varieties include Mahou, Cruz Campo, San Miguel, Damm, Estrella de Galicia, Alhambra, as well as Shandi (a mixture of simple beer with ginger or lemonade) Clara.
When buying wine, you should pay attention to the label with information about the age of the product. Inscription Vino de Mesa or Garantia Origen – Young Wine. Vino Crianza – weathered for two years (usually the first year – in a barrel). Reserva – more withstanding wine, and Gran Reserva belongs to "marchy", T. E. Weathered two years in a barrel and three – in a bottle.