Preolonional period. It is assumed that Palau islands were first settled OK. 4 thousand. years ago, out of modern Eastern Indonesia. Radio carbon analysis of the residues of the ancient village found on the reef o-whale gave dating ok. 1 thousand. years to N.NS., To the same period include traces of terraces on.Babetuyp. It is believed that then a greater number of people lived on the islands than today. By the time of the detection of the Palau, Europeans there was a rather complicated matrilinene and matriarchal social system, in which money and property was inherited through the women’s line, but remained the property of the genus. There was a whole hierarchy of leaders who carried out power over their tribesmen.
The first European, who saw Palau Islands, was probably Spaniard Rui Lopez de Villalobos in 1543. In 1686, Spain declared them with his own property, but did not do anything to colonize them. Contacts between the islanders and the Europeans were installed only in 1783, when at reefs near.Wondl broke the ship "Antelope" English captain Henry Wilson. The Supreme Leader of the Koror of Ibedul ordered to help repair the vessel and sent his son Lebuu to study in England. Lebuu died of the disease shortly after arriving in London. A new vessel with gifts and goods was sent to the koror. Other European merchants followed. The United Kingdom has become the most important trading partner Palau and remained them until the islands were captured by Spain.
Colonial epoch. In 1885, Pope Leo XIII officially recognized the right to Caroline Islands, including Palau. 2 churches were built and 4 Kapuchin Priests were sent. They achieved cessation of wars between individual villages and distributed writing.In 1899, after defeat in the war with the United States, Spain sold Caroline Islands in Germany. The latter began to energetically master the islands and operation of their natural resources. The colonial authorities widely used the enormative work of the islanders on the plantations of coconut palm trees, where Kopra was produced, and on the production of phosphates on.Anguore. Residents of Palau were seriously suffering from diseases delivered by Europeans. The colonialists intervened in the traditional life and customs of the Palauuans, forbid them to celebrate the holiday "Mur", Since he continued for a month and "distract" People from work. Since 1906, the islands were managed from German New Guinea.
In 1914, during the First World War, Caroline Islands were captured by Japan, and in 1920, the League of Nations handed it to her mandate on management. In 1922, Koror was turned into an administrative center of Japanese possessions in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean and built a modern city in a Japanese pattern with asphalt roads, electric and water supply, factories, shops, pools, restaurants and pharmacies. His population has grown to 40 thousand. man, but of them only less than 10% were Palauans. Thousands of workers from Japan, Korea and Okinawa were delivered to the islands.
New colonialists continued to actively develop Natural Resources Palau. They expanded the plantation economy, the production of phosphorites and fisheries. In 1935, the Japanese began mining boxites. The leaders of the islanders were deprived of power in favor of Japanese officials. The indigenous people were driving off the earth, confiscated it or forcing it to sell to migrants. The colonial authorities have abolished the right of labor land ownership and established private ownership of land. They opened public schools, but training in them was conducted on a Japanese dialect.
In the late 1930s, with the approach of war, Japan closed Palau for the outside world and concentrated its efforts on the construction of military fortifications and bases on the islands.
At the final stage of the Second World War, Japanese fortifications turned into the goals of the attacks of the allies. The most fierce battles unfolded on the Islands of Perely and Angaur. The most populated islands of Koror and Babetuyap, on which the Japanese raised indigenous people, were not subject to invasion. In the fall of 1944, Palau switched to US military administration, and in 1947 the Archipelago was part of the UNIT of the Pacific Islands, the administration of which was transferred to the United States. Palau became one of the territory of the territory. The managing power officially pledged to develop the infrastructure and system of formation of the islands, as well as prepare them for self-government.
The post-war position of Palau was heavy. The Japanese, Koreans and Okinawers were repatriated to their homeland in 1945-1946. The connection between the Isles of Micronesia was broken. Restoration of the economy occurred slowly. The American authorities organized special trading companies that were engaged in purchasing copers and craft products. The situation was aggravated by the fact that in 1955, the reserves of phosphorites on.Angores were exhausted. Their development stopped. Nevertheless, measures were taken to build new roads, the establishment of electrical and water supply and improved living conditions, primarily on.Koror. Representatives of Palau entered in 1965 in the Micronesia Congress, and the district legislative body was created in the district itself; His members advocated the development of agriculture and the creation of small industrial enterprises. By 1973, indigenous people owned only 24% of the land.
Senator from Palau Lazarus Eitaro Salaley headed created in 1967 Congress Micronesia "Commission for future political status". He advocated the provision of Single Micronesia self-government in 1974. However, in various parts of the ward of the territory in the early 1970s, the supporters of the Department were gaining strength. They formed the first political parties on Palau — Liberal and progressive. After in 1975, the draft Constitution of the Federated States of Micronesia, Salalia and other Leaders of Palau were presented for separation from the United States. In 1978, Palau residents spoke in a referendum against joining the Federated States and for the creation of a separate Republic of Belarus. The draft constitution approved by them included an item on the transformation of the islands into the world area free from nuclear weapons and military bases. In July 1979, the US government refused to approve this article. In 1980 the Constitution entered into force. From January 1, 1981, Palau became an autonomous republic led by President Haro and.Reselle. Political situation in the country remained unstable. Already in 1985 Reselik was killed in unclear circumstances. After the short presidency of Alfons of the Outerong Rechona for the post of head of state at the end of 1985, Lazarus Salay was elected. His Board was accompanied by scandals. Personal assistant to the president was arrested for opened the shooting in the House of Chairman of the House of Delegates. In September 1988 Salia shot himself due to the fact that corruption charges were put forward in his address. In the presidential election in November 1988, victory with a minor advantage won a successful businessman Ngiratkel Epison, supported "Association of Freedom". In the following elections in November 1992, Kunivor won, nominated "Coalition of openness, honesty and justice".
In 1982, the authorities of Palau signed an agreement on "Free Association" with USA. However, 7 referendums in order to approve it ended in failure, since it was not possible to ensure the necessary turnover of voters (75%). In 1992, the referendum participants voted to reduce the necessary turnout to 50%. November 9, 1993 At the new referendum, amending the Constitution 1978 was approved, which had previously prohibited the placement on the islands of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. After this Nakamura and the US authorities agreed on the entry into force of the agreement on "Free Association" For a 50-year term and the provision of independence from October 1, 1994. Under the terms of the contract, the United States has retained the right to use the third territory of the country and pledged to provide it with financial assistance in the amount of 480 million. Doll. For 15 years.
Independence. In 1996 Nakamura was re-elected for the presidency, receiving 62% of the votes. In 1998, the country’s parliament approved the law that turned Palau in "Offshore" Finance center. Opponents objected to fear that the country will become a refuge for illegal "Laundry" money and other criminal activities. In the presidential election in November 2000, Thomas Vengesau won 52% of the vote. For his rival Peter, Suguyma accounted for 46.2%. Independent candidates were elected to the parliament. The Nationalist Party of Palau led by a polycard Basilius influence does not use.
Resentgeshau, who joined the post in January 2001, promised to develop the infrastructure of the country and make its economy more independent, expanding the introduction of alternative energy sources in order to reduce the full dependence of the Palau from the import of fuel. During the first presidency, Vengesau (2001-2005), with the help of foreign investments such notable projects were carried out as the construction of a new terminal of the international airport and the administrative buildings of the future capital of the country. The construction of the building of the National Museum, the Center of Culture and theatrical Arts, Roads, Hotels, and T.D.
The political climate at Palau was complicated by the confrontation between the president and the parliament, which was unfolded against the background of corruption accusations, nominated against a number of parliamentarians. Special prosecutor began investigating cases of illegal use by members of the Parliament of funds from travel funds. Congress approved the draft budget for 2003, in which the elimination of the position of the prosecutor was envisaged, the president imposed a veto to the bill, but the parliament overcame it. The conflict was completed by a compromise, the budget was adopted, and the Special Prosecutor’s service was preserved. Parliamentarians began to return to the treasury in the amount of 250 thousand. Doll. In exchange for termination of investigative affairs against them. Later conflict broke out with a new force. The prosecutor not only began the investigation of the accusation of financial abuses against a number of governors, members of the legislative assemblies of the states and even traditional leaders, but put forward charges against the entire composition of the National Congress. Some senators tried to enable in an additional law on the budget of the point, which justified the cost of travel, but most of the Senate eliminated this item.
Disagreements between the legislative and executive power affected the problems of financial policies. In 2001, banking regulation and measures were adopted against "Laundry" of money. However, foreign banks continued to accuse Palau banks in this kind of activity. The President and Congress could not agree on the need to accept additions to the Act of Financial Institutions. In 2002, Vengesau put a veto on the bill accepted by Parliament, which allowed gambling and the construction of a casino on the islands. In 2004, members of the National Congress boycotted the president’s appeal ceremony to the nation. However, despite the domestic political difficulties, Vengesau was in November 2004 re-elected for the presidency for the second term.
In foreign policy, Palau continues to navigate the United States. In 2002, the Government of Palau signed with the US Department of Justice Memorandum on the protection of civil rights to the Palauuans living and working in the US. During the period of the war in Iraq in 2003, Resentgeshau announced the accession to the coalition led by the United States and the provision of the country’s territory for use in military operations. An agreement was reached on the additional American military assistance to the Palau in the field of security, the fight against terrorism, technology and navigation.