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Extinct in the XX century

Extinct in the XX century

Every hour on Earth disappears about three types of flora and fauna, experts from the Ibero American Center for Biological Diversity are approved. XX century became "lethal" for more than 100 species of animals. "My Planet" proposes to remember who we lost for the last hundred years.


In the 20th century, three subspecies of Tigrov were exterminated: Yavansky, Transcaucasian and Balinese. The smallest of all – Balinese was more like a cat – weighed from 65 to 100 kg. Nevertheless, in the legends and myths of the inhabitants of Bali Island, the tiger image was associated with destructive forces. The beginning of the mass destruction of Balinese cats was laid by Baron Oscar Woalko: He shot a tiger in 1911, and after that, literally for a quarter of a century, they disappeared. The last female shot on September 27, 1937. Interestingly, Balinese, apparently, tried to forget about their crime and destroyed many works of art and documents related to the Balinese tiger.

Transcaucasian tiger lived in reeds on the banks of the rivers in Central Asia, in Iran and the Caucasus. Bright redhead Handsome had a weight of about 240 kg and was one of the largest representatives of the species, yielding only Amur and Bengal. This tiger loved to travel, overcoming up to 100 km a day, for which he received the nickname "Stray Bars" from people. Local residents of the centuries peacefully existed next to the tiger, not counting it dangerous. For him, an exception was made: it was drawn on the tissues and carpets, despite the fact that Islam prohibits images of living beings.

Disappeared the form gradually. Declarant of 1883, when soldiers at the request of local residents arranged a cloud on tigers in the area of ​​Tashkent. There is a certificate of how in 1906 in about the same places tiger shot one of the princes of Golitsyn. The last Transcaucasian tiger was seen in the Amudarya Delta in 1957. After people have mastered the lands on the banks of the rivers, turning them into agricultural land, and dismissed all boars and roe deer, striped predators have nothing to eat.

Residents of Java still can not believe in the complete disappearance of the Yavansky Tiger. And although the last big cat was seen here in 1979, legends and rumors about the new appearances of extinct beast. Meru Betіrі National Park was created specifically for the search for disappeared animals. Healthy subspecies of tigers on the planet remained only six.

Passenger pigeon

Once the wandering pigeons in the USA and Canada, there was so much that, flying, they challenged the sky and created a similarity of eclipse. On one tree you could see more than a hundred nests. According to the stories of the American ornithologist Alexander Wilson, who lived at the turn of the XVIII-XIX centuries, one day he had a chance to see a flock of pigeons with a length of 360 km: for four hours of observation, he counted 2,22,222,000 birds!

From the pigeons, people had a lot of concern: they are littered, like snow, fell from the sky, they eaten fruit, berries, nuts – according to the calculations of zoologists, the package could eat 617,000 m³ of feed at once. "This is more daily dietary soldiers of all warring countries by the end of World War II!"- wrote British naturalist Frank Lane.

It is not surprising that colonists from Europe turned in North America a real war with these birds. It was a sports, and entertainment, and business. With the advent of the telegraph about the pieces of pigeons, it became possible to instantly inform the hunters, and the carcasses of thousands of birds and chicks went on the railway railway. "The history of the extermination of the wandering pigeons is the most amazing drama that has walked in nature with the participation of a person," describes the tragedy of these feathered biologists Igor Akimushkin.

By the beginning of the 20th century, there were no wandering pigeons in nature, several individuals lived in zoos and private individuals. On September 1, 1914, Martka Martha died in the Zoo city of Cincinnati – the last representative of the most common birds in the world.

Summer (Tasmansky) Wolf

He knew how to yawn like a crocodile, revealing the mouth of almost 120 °. The bag on the stomach, in which the female walked wagins, opened back, due to which the plants did not get into the fold when. Australian aborigines painted this strange animal for another 1000 years before. NS., And the Europeans discovered relatively recently and were forced to make changes to the classification of animals, since the sore wolf simply did not fit into it.

The first detailed description of the animal was made in 1808 – by that time wolves were found only in Tasmania. From Mainland Australia and Island New Guinea, they were ousted by a competitor: Dingo’s dog, which Masso imported immigrants-Aborigines. But in Tasmania, there were no peace in Tasmania: the hunters were unbelievable by these predators, as they dragged the game from the trays and ruined the bird poultry houses, and farmers believed that these wolves were stealing sheep. Only in 2013, Australian scientists rehabilitate the appearance, indicating that their underdeveloped jaw did not allow the sheep to hunt, but it was too late.

Shot and catch of Tasmansk wolves in the middle of the XIX century led to the fact that by 1863 animals were preserved only in the mountains and dense forests of Tasmania. To top off all disasters, animals have become infected with a deadly disease – probably the plague from the Dogs brought to the island, and by 1914, units remained units. The last Tasmansky wolf in nature died in 1930, the last wolf, contained in the Hobart Zoo, died six years later.

Humanity has come to his senses after half a century and burned about the loss. At the beginning of the XXI century, genetics tried to resurrect the animal, but the biomaterial was not enough. Australians believe that the wolf can still be found in the most deaf forests of Tasmania. In 2005, the Australian magazine The Bulletin offered 1.25 million Australian dollars to the one who caught the "Tasmansky Devil".

Extinct in the XX century

Also in the 20th century, the Newfoundland Wolf, who lived on the island of the same name and the eastern shore of Canada, Shaman, or the Japanese Chondo Wolf – the smallest of the fonts of the wolves, and the Kenai Wolf (Canis Lupus Alces), who lived in Alaska, is the largest representative of the pd. The latter was more than 2 m in length and more than 1 m in height. In order to destroy the dangerous giant, people used Strichnin.


These small wild and foolish animals are ancestors of contemporary horses and the closest relatives of the Przhevalsky horse. Their homeland was Eastern Europe and including the European part of Russia, they also met in the steppes and forest-steppes of Central Europe, Western Siberia and Western Kazakhstan. Tarpans quickly ran, their name in the language of the Turkic people sounds like "Try to jump into the whole support".

Hungry in winter, Tarpana eaten cooked for domestic livestock hay in the steppe, and in the period of Gon, sometimes "taught" home horses in Prairie. Catch up and kill the thief Many considered fun and the case of honor, besides, Tarpan meat was quite tasty.

As a result of the extermination and development of land in the Central Europe of the Forest Tarpanov, there were still in the Middle Ages, in the east of the range – in the XVI-XVIII centuries. Last Forest Horse was shot dead in the current Kaliningrad region in 1814.

Steppe tarpans existed longer: until the XIX century, their herds were still met in nature. Tarpans of the Black Sea Stete Tarpanams were held the longest: they were raped back in the 1830s, but after 30 years their population has shown no. The last steppe representative of the breed was seen in December 1879 in the territory of the Kherson region of Ukraine. However, a fully subspecies disappeared in 1918, when the last stallion was killed in captive: in private estate under Poltava.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the Poles artificially brought the Breed of the Polish Konik in Belovezhskaya Pushcha based on the offspring of domesticated tarpanov: these tarpanoid horses look like extinct subspecies, but genetics do not consider them identical.

Guadalup Karacara

Karakara – Bird, who lived in the Mexican Island Guadalupe, had a reputation "terrible" and "evil". And it is not possible: these feathers were cruel even with their own children – they chose from each brood of the weakest chick and killed him, and also destroyed their weed congor. Often, these feathered predators from the Family Falconies were eaten not only to Padal, but attacked young goats and domestic birds, even being satisfied, and killed one after another, no fear of man. Because of this, local shepherds hated them severely and tried to lime in every way, including with the help of poisons. The extermination took place in record time: if in 1876, Caracars calmly flew around the island, then in 1897 only one part was noticed. The last mention of living Guadalup Karakar refers to 1903. These killer birds became the only predatory feathers, whom a person destroyed intentionally. Together with the Caracars, the lines of the look of Acutifrons Caracarensis died.

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