The history of the population of the islands, which are now included in Kiribati, is one of the greatest mysteries in the development of modern civilization. Presumably, the first inhabitants of the islands were Australoid tribes that settled this territory over 2500 years ago. However, in the XIV century of our era, Tongsans and Fijians invaded the island of Gilbert, and, apparently, did not find any aboriginal tribes here. Numerous mixed marriages between these ethnic groups and rather often nearby bonds led to the fact that by the XIX century the population of the islands became quite homogeneous.
The first island of the group, who fell into the field of view of Europeans, became a butaritari, an open Spanish navigator Pedro Fernandez de Kiro in 1606 g and called Bueno-Viek. He opens Makin and, presumably, take (1606 g), and since then, European vessels have become frequent in the waters of modern Kiribati. Famous our hydrograph and. F. Kruzenshtern inflicts the last of Gilbert and Line. By the middle of the XIX century, British and American whaling vessels became the most frequent visitors to these waters. At the same time, Christian missionaries building churches and "Saving souls of savages from their uneasy lifestyle". In 1892, the United Kingdom announces a group of Gilbert Islands by the British Protectorate, and in 1896, it is based on the island administration on Tarave. In 1900, phosphates are found in Banaba (OCH), and by the beginning of 1916, the British fully subordinate the islands of Hilbert and Ellis (now in Tuvalu). Phoenix Archipelago, two islands from which were managed together with the United States, joined the Protectorate in 1937. Other Islands of Kiribati Barbarusi were exploited by foreign companies as phosphate deposits, but they ultimately entered the hold.
With the beginning of the war in the Pacific, in 1941, Kiribati was inevitably drawn into battle. The Japanese bombed Banabu, Taraveu and Butaritari soon after the attack on the Pearl Harbor, many of the islands were captured by the expedition building of the country of the rising sun, but by November 1943, the American Marine Infantry released most of them. But on this suffering, the islanders did not end – in 1957 and 1962. The British choose the Kirithimat atoll as a polygon for testing nuclear weapons. And only in 1963 the islanders provided "Advisory" role in their own government. July 12, 1979, after a long struggle, Kiribati received complete independence, and two months later, the United States refused all its requirements on Line and Phoenix Islands.
In 1975, the inhabitants of Banaba, almost completely destroyed by the mining industry, began a trial in the British Supreme Court in the case of compensation for damage to their homeland, and eventually won the case, leaning only $ 9.04 million. pounds sterling and receiving several places in the Parliament of Kiribati.
As a result, the country finally gained the opportunity to solve his affairs herself, but remained tied to international grants and subsidies. Due to its extreme isolation from civilization, the islands live all the same leisurely life as hundreds of years ago. This is real "lost World", where there is no television, the main entertainment are songs and dancing, food, like hundreds of years ago, gives the ocean, and the only radio station works against the case.
Tarawa Island (Cook or Knox Island) lies in the center of the northern part of Gilbert Islands. With a total area of about 490 kV. km Atoll consists of 22 "Big" Islands, of which are 8 inhabited, and 17 small reefs with a total area of only 21 sq. km forming almost a triangular ring around shallow central lagoon. The biggest island of the atoll is South Tarawa, stretches throughout the south side "Triangle". South Tarawa by local standards is strongly urbanized if you can call this word cluster of houses in the traditional Polynesian style, many of which are standing on the piles right in the water. Three almost fastened to each other of the city center of Tarai – Betio, Bairiki and Bickenibeu, form a single conglomerate. Here is the capital of the state – Bairiki and the only international international airport of Bonryki. This is one of the most populated areas in the Pacific – about 30% of the population of the whole country live here.
Bairiki arose after the merger of several villages in the south of Taras and is connected with the neighboring islands of the bridge chain with a total length of about 32 km. Bairiks are the offices of the government, the office and the residence of the President, the Parliament Building, the Central Post Office, the offices of almost a dozen banks, the State Library and the Archive, the National Board of Trustees, the Kiribati tourist office, the largest "Manaaba" (community house) in the country and various official institutions. Nearby, at Bonritiki, there is an international airport, and a new central hospital and fish cages. Public Center for Tarai, and with him and all Kiribati – football field. His covered podium is the largest building in the country. Nearby, in her shadows, the humble presidential palace, the buildings of the old residence of the colonial authorities and the same ancient prison.
The Old Central Hospital, the Ministry of Enlightenment and Agriculture, the headquarters of Air-Kiribati, Pedagogical School, Hotel Oriental and a new cultural center containing an extensive collection of products of local industries, are located in Bickenibeau.
Betio Island – the most densely populated place Kiribati and one of the main industrial centers of the country – here there is a port, shipyard and main power plant. This is a completely flat and virtually naked island, almost the entire central part of which is a wide strip of the Hawking airfield. Probably, this is one of the most significant monuments of war in the Pacific – here a huge number of military relics of the famous period is concentrated "Battle for Tarara". November 20, 1943, after almost the seven-day fire training forces of the fleet and naval aviation, part of the US marines were landed at Tarav. The main base of the Japanese army was located on Betio, so bloody battles unfolded here, during which both sides lost almost 5,000 people. November 24, 1943 Betio, and with him all the shoes, fell.
Evidence of those fights on the island remained quite a few, they are found almost every corner here. Today, after more than 60 years, on the ocean side of Betio, you can see the remains of four eighty. The same positions have been preserved in Tekkin and the tororon in the western and eastern tip of the island, as well as the Protestant cemetery. A whole series of dilapidated dollars stretches almost all over the external budget of Betio. At the seabed, you can still find broken aircraft and landing bots, and weapons and ammunition find almost weekly on the island. The monuments of the most severe battle on Tarave are the memorial chapel in the village of Aboocoro and the memorial heroes of the Option, established in memory of 22 British employees, brutally killed by the Japanese on October 15, 1942. On this small island, which has a length of only 3 km, more than 5,500 victims of the war are buried, so well-groomed military cemeteries with rows of wooden tombstones are considered the most impressive feature of Betio.
In the small islets of Tarai, life also boils – the middle of the Moroni School, the church and a small fish market are located on Etya, on the Ambon – Golf Club with 9 fields and fish for fish, at the Andoherek – Headquarters of the Catholic Church and College of St. Louis, AnTebook – Woster Kiribati and Motor Show "Tarava Motors", And on the tiny reefs of the northern part there are numerous pile houses, which many tourists are happy to use for accommodation. Numerous islands connect the only street that goes on land, then by bridges through the passages in the reef. On one side of Main Street lie turquoise and dairy water of the lagoon, on the other – the open ocean. And stormy weather Ocean shafts are freely rolled through small islands.
The largest of the external atolls of the South Gilbert group, Tabiteuea or Bishop Island (400 km south of Tharava) consists of two large islands – Meank (Northern) and Maiaki (South) total area of 38 kV. KM. Atoll is considered one of the most beautiful places of Kiribati and the largest atoll of the Gilbert group – an extensive turquoise lagoon with a length of almost 65 km surrounds the necklace of small islands that form a whole labyrinth of reefs and passes with a total area of about 38 kV. KM. The climate is hot here more hot and dry than in Tarave, therefore the land is poorer, and the crops are scarce, but, nevertheless, it is the most densely populated atoll of the South Gilbert group (about 4.5 thousand. residents).
The inhabitants of Tabiteuea claim that their island was the very primostal, from which all went "Peoples of the sea" In the Pacific Ocean. "Mmesto creation" is located on the island of Maiaki, where the mythical was supposedly growing "Tree of kings", One of the roots of which a sprouter on Samoa in the form of a sacred tree of those cain-tickaba. It is from here, according to the locals, the settlement of Tharav, Samoa and Fiji began. So or not, of course, no one knows, but certain evidence of the central place of Tabiteyea in the Mythology system of Micronesians also celebrated the first missionaries, even a simple translation of the name of the island ("There are no leaders") Indicates its important place in the mythology islanders. Local residents have always been considered the most militant tribe in the region, more than once and not two who join the open confrontation with Europeans. In 1879-1881. Christian missionaries led by High Bingam more than once provoked here a real massacre between the Christian North and professing traditional beliefs in the south, during which more than a thousand people were killed on both sides.
Traditional culture here is still strong, folk dances, singing and magic still play a significant role of local life. Locals even deserved nickname "Sicilians of the Pacific Ocean", What is caused by complex ritual and an increased sense of self-esteem inherent islanders. But this is the only island in the Gilbert group, who had his own prison, as well as the whole two airports, one in the north, the other in the south – the confrontation between the northerners and the Southener is not located still.
Beru Island lies in 96 km east of Tabiteuee and 426 km southeast Tarasa. This is perhaps the only island, not an atoll, as part of the South Gilbert Group. The first European, who is attributed to open take in 1826, was the captain of the English whaling vessel John Clerk. The island is 14 km long with a width of 4 km in the widest part, occupies the eastern side of the young reef, which expands in the western part, forming a small shallow lagoon of Nuk. Laguna is surrounded by cage for fish, and the free coast is occupied by mangrove forests with a total length of almost 3 km.
Like Tabiteyea, I take it one of the cradle of local culture. In traditional mythology, the Creator Nareo created the race of people to take and the first of them – Taburimai and Ricky, saw the light here. They and their descendants became the inhabitants of these islands, the most influential clans of the country are kept from them. Here I built the first "Mwaneaba" or "Manaaba" (Public Prayer House) Tabontebik. And the island itself was made of a spike of wood on-Atibu or Te-Cainticaaba ("The tree of Life"). It was from I, in the middle of the XVI in the middle of the XVI, the fleet of the leader Kita, who captured almost all the islands of the Gilbert group, Banabu and even part of Tuvalu. And today, the islanders catch fish and birds, grow root and with pleasure it is taught for a few while tourists with a complex fishing craft in the open ocean.
Butaritari atoll ("The smell of the sea") Or Makin lies 100 km north-west of Tharava and is considered one of the largest atolls in Gilbert Islands – its sizes are about 30 to 15 km at the area of about 13.6 kV. KM. Almost square atoll consists of a continuous and very narrow sushi strip (no more than 350 meters wide). The deep lagoon of butaritaries is open to the ocean with a wide pass, in which several small islands that form a rather complicated fairway. In the southern shore of the lagoon, mangrove swamps stretch, and from the northern side, the reef decreases significantly, forming the underwater riddled by canyons. This is one of the most wet places in the country – here drops from 1.5 to 4 meters of precipitation per year, so it is one of the green islands of Kiribati.
Glorified Butaritari Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894.) who lived here at the end of the XIX century. It is also one of the best harbors in the Hilbert group. The main village of the island is the same name and is the second largest landing in the country (the population of about 2,200 people), and about 4,000 people live on the island. But, probably, the main attraction of Butaritari – the grain tree is growing only here, whose fruits are frying in a special way, getting the most famous local delicacy – "Bikiraro" or "Motin-Ue". You can hire a canoe and go to the nearby island of Makin through a stunningly beautiful reef. And you can visit the battleships that flared on the island in 1942, when a group of American marines took a workshop in the rear of Japanese positions to divert the enemy’s attention from the planned landing on the Solomon Islands. Until now, the butaritars are preserved fragments of about two tens of aircraft, including the Japanese hydraulic circuit, lying on a small depth near the village of Butaritari, and other military relics.
Abemaam Island is located in the central part of Kiribati, 80 km south-west of Tarala. Central Atoll has an area of 16 kV. km, population of 3,700 people, and consists of a deep central lagoon surrounded by islands in the north and east, which gives it the total area of 28 square. KM.
The island is known as the place of proclamation of the Protectorate Declaration of the British Crown over Gilbert Islands (May 27, 1892), as well as "Stevenson Island", Although the writer and his wife lived here just 1 year – in 1889. In 1911, Abemam was declared "Colonian Crown" And for a long time was considered the postal and military capital of Gilbert Islands, the benefit of successful geographical position provided it with some advantages in these aspects. The main attractions of the island are numerous traces of World War II fighting, several patriarchal fishing villages and endemic variety of tiny yellow "barking" frogs.
Aroraa or Hup Island – the southernmost island in the Gilbert group. This is a low and flat coral array of an extended form, approximately 9 km long and 1 km wide at 9.5 kV Square. KM.
Business Card Island – Famous "Navigation stones Arorahe" or those atibu-ni-borou. Nine vertically furnished flat coral plates located on a far afternoon cape, so ancient that even local residents have no legends explaining their origin. It is believed that their location repeats the traditional vector of the routes of Micronesian Savior, and therefore they are nothing but the reference of the navigation system of the ancient conquers of the Great Ocean. By the way, there are many other flat stones around the island, but they mostly represent the delimitation signs of land or coconut groves, but in other islands of the group of customs, such signs have not been detected.
Nonomi Atoll (Dog Island or Nomutch Island) lies with 38 km north-west of Tabiteyea, and is an almost continuous line of islands in three sides of the atoll and the only big island of Noumlang in the passage from the west. Nonalty Third size Atoll among Gilbert Islands – Its dimensions are about 35 km long and up to 15 km wide with the average width of the sushi strip in 700 m (Atoll Square about 29.2 kV. km). Nonal Lagoon has 15 km in diameter and abounds with stones, which give the shelter of all kinds of maritime. The northern part of the island is broken by several narrow aisles that form a number of islets that are quite difficult to access, and therefore serve nesting for seabirds.
Line Islands are a long group of extremely remote islands, atolls and reefs stretching from north to south between the Equator in the central part of the Pacific Ocean by more than 2000 km (and taking into account the atoll of Johnstoll – and 4000 km). Total eleven low-lying islands with a total area of only 425 sq. km occupy a water surface area of the whole Europe. Line Islands are one of the most remote island chains on Earth, located 2800 km west of the Hawaiian Islands and 1600 km north of the Marquis Islands, and the closest "neighbor" – Penrin Island (Cook Islands) lies 610 km north-west of East Island. From Tarasa, the nearest island of group Line is removed approximately 2600 km.
Eight Islands Group Line – Flint, Kirityatimi (Christmas Island), Malden (Independens Island), Caroline (Millenium Island), Tabuaran (Fanning Island), Terraine (Arapata), Starbak (Barren) and East are part of Kiribati. Jarvis Islands, Kingmen Reef and Palmyra are desert and are under the supervision of the United States as part of the National Pacific Islands Reserve Complex (Also, the USFWS / PI includes the Hawaiian National Reserve, Baker Islands, Houland and Jarvis, as well as National Atoll Johnson National Reserve).
Geological History of Line Islands is complex and poorly studied. Volcanic island in their origin came the product of the extensive fault area activities. But the active vulcanism stopped approximately 37 million years ago and since then a decrease in the seabed and erosion processes have strongly changed the once high volcanic peaks, and today only 11 of them rise above the surface of the ocean, and that is not more than a few meters. But the water around the islands are among the most saturated marine life in the Pacific Ocean, and the islands themselves are most important sites of the nesting of seabirds (their colony here is considered one of the largest in the world). Tabuaran and therain are inhabited, and more isolated and arid islands of central and southern groups are desert and protected as protected areas.
Tabuaran (Fanning Island) is one of the most beautiful atolls of Kiribati and a popular yacht parking for ships traveling between Hawaii and Tahiti. The island lies between 3130 km north-east of Tarala and get here, not having a vessel or aircraft, almost impossible. When Europeans discovered this island for themselves, he was uninhabited. But numerous archaeological finds on its territory made in the 20th century, clearly indicate its important importance in the system of migrations of Tongsans who visited, probably these places in VI-IX centuries. N. NS. In the XIX century, The Fanning Island Plantations Ltd has turned the island in one big coconut plantation, and now about 1,300 inhabitants arrive at Tabuaran. Also, the island is popular with scablasts, who consider it an external distribution by one of the best places for diving in the region.
Kirityatimi (Christmas Island) is approximately 3,300 km northeast Taravela and 285 km north-west of Tabuaran. This is the biggest atoll in the Line group and in the world – its length is about 70 km, the width is 36 km, and the area is about 321 kV. KM. This ancient atoll consists of a large and flat island with a shallow lagoon, opening up to the northwest. In the inner (Eastern) end of the lagoon there are several hundred small laguns that have no way out to the sea (the total area of all the lagoon is about 160 kV. km). A narrow reef plate framing the whole island has a width of up to 120 m, and the most wide of the northern coast. The height of the island does not exceed 12 meters.
The island was opened by James Cup on December 24, 1777. Cook and his team remained here all Christmas holidays, which determined the European name of the island. Dr. E. Christophensen from Cook’s team did then records about 24 species of plants and 36 varieties of birds living here. Since then, almost nothing has changed – Kirityatim is still home and the habitat of sea birds, which there are up to 20 species here, and their total quantity is estimated at 6 million. Although their number decreased noticeably in recent years, Kirityatim still has a greater variety of species and bird density than any other oceanic island in the world. The vegetation is presented by several types of shrubs, a dozen species of herbs and coconut palm trees. In some of the lakes there is a fish, and the marine life around the reef and in the lagoon are simply great.
Jarvis Island is located 350 km southwest Kirityatim, and its extensive reef framed the shallow-water inner lagoon, who serves as a house for one of the biggest populations of Dark Colt in the world. Endemic vegetation Palmyra Pyshn, one of the last coastal forests of Pisonia (Pisonia) is preserved here in the Pacific Ocean, as well as extensive thickets of ferns. Sand tidal zone Palmyra provide rest and food for thousands and thousands of migratory seabirds. Kingmen Reef is almost triangular at the atoll plan, and its reserve protects approximately 1957 kV. km of shelf and 105 kV. km of coral reefs.
Extremely distant and isolated Banaba Island lies in 430 km west of Gilbert Group. The drop-like atoll, unlike the majority of the country islands, towers over the water at 81 m (the highest island of the country) and is almost a bare limestone rock with an area of 5.7 kV. KM. The island was practically destroyed by the mining industry, as phosphate layers with a thickness of 2 meters covered it almost completely, and by 1979, when Kiribati received independence, were fully developed. To ensure mining, almost all banabos were resettled to the Rabi Island (Fiji), where they mostly live so far. And only 280 people live on Banaba, who are trying to restore their homeland. But before the invasion of Europeans, it was one of the most interesting islands of the region, with its unique traditions and complex culture. So far, the Banaba dancers (even in exile, they continue to consider themselves the inhabitants of this island) are considered one of the best in the Pacific, and elders are of respect for all tribal groups Kiribati. Until now, for visiting the island, the approval of the Council of Elders is required, and the ecological experiment, which has been arranged here in order to assess the possibility of restoring victims of human impact of natural complexes, may have far-reaching consequences.
Phoenix or Ravaki archipelago consists of eight islands – Abariring (Canton), Enderbery, Ravaki (Phoenix), Mantra (Sydney), Burney, McKin, Nikamaro (Gardner) and Oraona (Hull). Islands are located in the central part of the Pacific Ocean, 640 km north of American Samoa, and occupy an area of 11 kV. KM. The archipelago was opened in 1828 during the floating of the American Research Ship of the same name, and on June 29, 1889, the British flag was raised over the islands. March 18, 1937, the islands were part of the Colony of the Islands of Ellis and Gilbert, since 1939, the United Kingdom and the United States managed the archipelago jointly. In connection with the overcrowding of the central islands, in 1938-1940. The government of the Protectorate decided to settle uninhabited islands then with Gilbert Islands. However, by 1952 it became clear that this campaign was fiasco, and by 1963 almost all the colonists left at Solomon Islands. Now the Phoenix archipelago actually does not have a permanent population.
The most east of the islands of the archipelago, Ravaki lies in 180 km southeast Abaring and 350 km south of Equator. The size of the island is small – the area is only 0.5 kV. km at 1.2 sizes 0.8 km. The low island (the maximum lift in the eastern part has only 5.4 m of height), covered with herbs and low shrubs, like many of the islands of the central part of the Pacific Ocean, is a central depression surrounded by raised ridge. It spread out the salty lake with an area of approximately 20 hectares and many small fresh reservoirs, which are the only sections of fresh water in the whole archipelago. Surrounded by a narrow reef width of no more than 100 m from the shore.
Ravaki serves as an important part of the habitat of seabirds, which in some years gather in huge colonies related to the number of the largest in the central part of the Pacific. Dark crane nests (Sterna Fuscata), small frigate (Fregata Ariel), Puffinus L’Herminieri (Puffinus L’Herminieri) and Wedge Pacificus. Each of the total half-life of local plant species dominates its area, which turns the island in the natural reserve and the laboratory of evolution.
Abariring or Canton Island – the largest (9 kV. km) and the most northern of the group of phoenix. Low atoll with a narrow strip of land surrounds a shallow water lagoon 6 times superior in the area itself island. The lagoon size 5 to 11 km has a depth of only 6 m and contains numerous coral arrays and a whole network of reefs – coral growth is especially active on the western side of the lagoon, opposite the only passage in the wall of reefs. The ocean beach stretching throughout the perimeter of the island is composed alternately with snow-white sand and coral debris, and an elevated (up to 2 m) middle part of the atoll is covered with low herbs. The southern coast is occupied by low bushes of scenes and suryan, the most large plants on the island are trees "COU" (up to 9 m), as well as coconut palms that are here exactly 10. There are 23 bird species, as well as the omnipresent Polynesian rat, lizards and hermit crabs. Water around the reef is rich in marine inhabitants, among which the most interesting sea turtles, laying eggs on sand banks abaring.
The tiny island of the Burney, located 90 km east of the Ravaki, was discovered by the captain emmament in 1823. The area of this tiny piece of coral is only 0.2 kV. km, and dimensions – 1.2 0.5 km. The eastern side of the scalovers (height is 1.8 m) and covered with coral chips, and northern flat and lowered – it covers low herbs. In the center of the Byrni lies tiny lagoon, whose waters of crayons and very solons. Reefs surround the Northern, Eastern and South Coast, and on coral slabs of the South Cape, as they say, you can find the writers of the former inhabitants of the island.
Enderbury Island lies North-west Ravakov, 50 km from Abariring. Low (up to 4 m) coral array of almost rectangular shape, Enderbury has an area of 5.1 kV. km and is surrounded by a narrow coral reef, which does not form the lagoon. Most of the surface is covered with a carpet of herbs, bush grasses and cides (SIDA). There are even a few tiny palm groves, some kind of miraculously survived during the development of phosphates (stocks of them turned out to be more than modest, which in general and saved the nature of this island). Enderbury is an important nesting of the sea bird and the greatest breeding zone of green sea turtles (Chelonia Mydas) within the Phoenix archipelago. And the most amazing inhabitant of the island is a tiny bug hiding among the roots of grass. His closest relative is a coroede beetle living in Hawaii, Samoa and Fiji, and how he got on Enderbury is not completely clear.
Merra’s Atoll (Sydney), lying southwest Ravakov, was found in 1823 the same captain ement. The British flag was raised above the island of June 26, 1889. This is the most southeastern island of Phoenix Archipelago, and one of the three group atolls lying south of the equator. Almost triangular 4.4 kV area atoll. The KM consists of a relatively wide reef surrounding a small and very salt lagoon, not having a connection with the ocean. In the southeastern corner of the atoll, on the site of the former phosphate careers, there are several saltwaters, which are filled with water only in the period of rain and storms. The western side of the row is quite significant by local coconut forests, and on the northeastern side there is a very dense forest from spiny shrubs and low trees of tournament, Pizoni, Morinda and scenes. Fauna Manri is similar to the nearby islands, but less abundant. A wide variety of marine life in Reef Mandry is widely known, but some fish here are poisonous.
The most interesting feature of the island is the ancient ruins that remain from the settlements of Polynesian tribes. Hidden among the north-western and northeast coast of the atoll, numerous coral platforms and slabs clearly talk about the presence of Polynesians here, and the inhabitants of Micronesia.
Nikumaro (Gardner-Atoll) is the most southwest of Ravaki Islands, is 125 km south-west of McKin Island. Having approximately 6 km long and up to 2 km wide, this beautiful oval atoll area of 4.1 kV. km forms a narrow lagoon. Like all the islands of the Ravakov group, the North, South and Eastern shores of the atoll are under the constant influence of the surf and are subject to storms, so the only village is in the western part, at the only wide passage to the lagoon.
Most coast covered with dense thickets of low shrubs, even trees growing only in the northwestern part of the atoll and on the shores of the passage to the lagoon do not reach the height of more than 12 m. Animal world is also common for such islands – numerous birds, Polynesian rat, hermit crabs and coconut crabs. On the reef and in the lagoon, excellent ichthyofauna, and the beauty of the atoll attracts here a lot of diversa extremal. And the main secret island is considered to be a loss in these parts of the famous American pilot Emilia Elimart, which mysteriously disappeared on the way to Houland Island in 1937, and may land and died to Nikumaro.
The only entertainment on the islands of the Ravaki, except for lying on the beach, are excellent marine fishing and diving. There is no service for this, but but the ocean around the atolls is saturated with different forms of underwater flora and fauna, and the coral slopes of the atolls, imbued with underwater caves, create a unique underwater landscape. Fish and other marine inhabitants are not completely afraid of a person here, and modern shafts of Lov are unknown, so fabulous catches are guaranteed.